Definition, Characteristics, Functions and Abnormalities of the Human Hormone System

Human Hormone System – Definition, Characteristics, Functions and Abnormalities – After exercising, our throat will feel dry and thirsty. This happens because the body sweats a lot, so the water in the body also comes out a lot. This situation makes the body immediately release a substance that stops the discharge of the fluid. The substance in question is called a hormone. When we drink water, the hormones released by the body will stop immediately.

Hormones are chemical compounds, in the form of proteins that have a function to stimulate or activate the body’s metabolic processes. With hormones in the body, the organs will function better.

To be able to carry out activities and be able to react to external and internal changes, proper coordination is needed between the activities of the body’s organs. In this case, the endocrine system is a system that can maintain the integration of the activities of the body’s organs. Hormones produced by the endocrine system play a very important role.

Human Hormone System

A. Understanding the Human Hormone System

The word hormone comes from the Greek word hormaen which means to move. A hormone is a substance that is produced by a part of the body. Organs that play a role in hormone secretion are called endocrine glands. It is so called because the secreted hormones are circulated throughout the body by the blood and without passing through special channels. On the other hand, there are also exocrine glands which circulate their secretions through special ducts.

Although the amount needed is small, the presence of hormones in the body is very important. This can be seen from its function which plays a role, among others, in the process of growth and development of the body, the process of reproduction, metabolism of substances, and so on.

Hormones will be released by the endocrine glands when there is a stimulus (stimulus). The hormone will be transported by the blood to the appropriate gland. As a result, certain appropriate body parts will respond. For example, the hormone insulin is secreted by the pancreas when there is stimulation of high blood sugar, the hormone adrenaline is secreted by the adrenal medulla by stimulation of the sympathetic nerves, and so on.

Glands in the human body are divided into 2 parts, namely:

  • Exocrine glands namely glands that have special channels in the distribution of their secretions / sap. Example: digestive glands.
  • Endocrine namely glands that do not have a special channel in the distribution of the secretions / sap. Example: pituitary gland, thyroid, thymus etc.

Endocrine glands are also called blind glands because the hormones they produce are not channeled through a channel but directly into the blood vessels. Hormones from the endocrine glands follow blood circulation throughout the body until they reach certain organs. Although all hormones make contact with all tissues in the body, but only cells / tissues that contain receptors that are specific to certain hormones are affected by these hormones.

Hormonology is the study of hormones. In living things, especially humans, hormones are produced by glands that are scattered in the body. How hormones work in the body can not be known quickly changes, but it takes a long time. Unlike the nervous system, the way it works can quickly be seen changes. This is because the hormone produced will be directly circulated by the blood through the blood vessels, so it takes a long time.

B. Characteristics and Functions of Hormones

Hormones have the following characteristics:

  • Produced and secreted into the blood by cells of the endocrine glands in very small amounts
  • Transported by blood to target cells/tissues
  • Interact with specific receptors present in target cells sel
  • Has the effect of activating special enzymes
  • Has an effect not only on one target cell, but can also affect several different target cells.

Hormone functions are:

  • Stimulates growth and metabolism of the body.
  • Stimulates reproduction.
  • Regulate body fluid balance / homeostasis.
  • Regulate behavior.

C. Hormone Glands

Judging from their activity, endocrine glands can be divided into:

  • Glands that work throughout life, for example hormones that play a role in metabolic processes.
  • Glands that work from a certain time, such as sex hormones.
  • Glands that work only up to a certain time, for example the thymus gland

Judging from the aspect and type of location, endocrine glands can be divided into:

No. Endocrine Location
1 Pituitary Gland Located at the base of the cerebrum, in the groove of the selatursica bone in the wedge bone
2 Thyroid Gland Located in the neck area
3 Parathyroid glands Located near the thyroid gland
4 Pancreatic gland Located near the ventricles (big stomach)
5 adrenal glands Located at the top of the kidney
6 Ovaries Located in the abdomen (stomach)
7 Testicles Located on the testicles in the scrotum

In the human body there are several types of endocrine glands, namely the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, pancreas, adrenal, ovaries, testes, and digestive glands.

D. Relationship between Hormone System and Nervous System

Hormones work on orders from the nervous system. The system that regulates the cooperation between nerves and hormones is located in the hypothalamus area. The hypothalamus area is often called the neuroendocrine control area.

Hormones function in regulating homeostasis, metabolism, reproduction and behavior. Homeostasis is an automatic regulation in the body so that survival can be maintained. For example controlling blood pressure, blood sugar levels, and heart work.

The following is the relationship between the hormone system and the nervous system which is illustrated in the form of a schematic or chart:

  • Releasing Factor
    Is a factor that improves the situation or condition of the body, so that the condition of the body becomes better. These factors are hormones that prevent the occurrence of these body conditions.
  • Inhibitor Factor / Inhibiting factor is a factor that continues to support the situation or condition of the body, so that the condition of the body becomes not good / worsens the condition of the body. These factors are hormones that support the occurrence of these body conditions.

Difference between hormone system and nervous system

No. Differentiating aspect Hormone system Nervous system
1 Action Slow Fast/immediate
2 Settings Long term, e.g. growth and development Short term, e.g. heart rate and muscle contraction
3 Secretion Hormone Neurotransmitters
4 Communication Communication between neurons via synapses Communication through the circulatory system

E. Abnormalities due to excess / deficiency of hormones

No. Gland Hormones produced Disturbance/disorder Characteristic features
1 Pituitary Growth hormone deficiency (hyposecretion)growth hormone) Dwarfism The patient looks short (only about a meter or less) but still has normal body proportions
Excess growth hormone (hypersecretion)growth hormone) Gigantism (giantism) Occurs in childhood, where excessive growth occurs even up to 8 feet
Acromegaly Occurs in adulthood, patients experience jawbone and facial enlargement. The skin gets thicker, followed by disturbances due to nerve compression by increased bone mass
2. Thyroid Thyroxine hypersecretion (hyperthyroidism) Grave’s disease/morbus basedow These patients have a greatly increased metabolism; Patients tend to get thinner even though at the same time the patient has an increased appetite. Excessive sweating, rapid pulse, heat intolerance and weakness. There may also be protrusion of the eyeball (exophthalmos).
Hyposecretion of thyroid hormones (Hypothyroidism) Cretinism (Dwarf) Occurs in childhood, characterized by the patient unable to achieve normal physical and mental growth
Mixed Edema (Myxedema) Occurs in adults, characterized by low metabolic rate, excessive body weight, rough body shape, and hair loss
3. Parathyroid Hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone Hyperparathormone Abnormalities in bones such as brittle bones, abnormal shape and break easily. Excess calcium excreted in urine along with phosphate ions can cause kidney stones batu
Hyposecretion of parathyroid hormone Hypoparathormone Symptoms of muscle spasms (tetany)
4. Pancreas Hyposecretion of the hormone insulin Type I diabetes This disease is completely dependent on insulin, this disease is often found in children or young adults. Treatment by replacing insulin according to the required amount
Type 2 diabetes In this disease insulin is produced in sufficient quantities but there are disturbances in its quality and mechanism of action. Risk factors for this disease include a family history of diabetes mellitus and obesity
5. Adrenal Cortex Hypersecretion of adrenal gland hormones Cushing’s syndrome Patients experience increased blood pressure, blood sugar due to excessive production of the hormone cortisol.
Hyposecretion of adrenal gland hormones Addison’s disease Symptoms include • Hypoglycemia (decreased blood sugar levels), • Impaired formation of glucose by the net (gluconeogenesis) • Decreased levels of glycogen in the liver, which is a glucose reserve in the body • Disorders due to aldosterone deficiency such as excessive sodium and fluid expenditure in the kidneys.
• Dehydration, • Decreased blood pressure • Shock that can lead to death, especially if not treated quickly.
6. gonads Hyposecretion of gonadal hormones Can cause interference, especially in the human reproductive process.


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