Acid-Base Reactions: Introducing Ka and pKa

So last time we went through all the different trends that affect acidity. The bottom line is that any factor which stabilizes the conjugate base will result in increased acidity.  Now, it’s great to know trends.  It’s extremely important, in fact. But what do you do when you want to compare the acidity of two…

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Five Key Factors That Influence Acidity

Five Key Factors That Affect Acidity Today we’ll talk about what’s behind the trends in acidity for different molecules and discuss the most important factors that determine these values. I’ve written in schoolmarmish tones before about how pKa is one of the most important measures you can learn in organic chemistry, and not knowing some…

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Walkthrough of Acid-Base Reactions

Acidity Trends In Organic Molecules Here, we’ll review the key trends that affect acidity, which all have the common effect of stabilizing negative charge (or more broadly, a lone pair of electrons). 1. The Weaker The Conjugate Base, The Stronger The Acid. So Any Factor Which Stabilizes The Conjugate Base Will Increase Acidity An acid base reaction…

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Acid Base Reactions In Organic Chemistry

An Introduction to Acid Base Reactions In Organic Chemistry Now that we’ve described how to figure out where the electrons are in a molecule,  the factors that stabilize negative charge and positive charge, and gone into the curved arrow formalism for reactions, we’re ready to start going into more detail on some of the key…

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Introduction to Acid-Base Reactions

ollowing up on the 4 major classes of reactions you encounter in Org 1, let’s look at the first of those four: acid base reactions. The focus here is not initially to understand why things happen the way they do – that comes later. The initial focus is to be able to recognize what is happening. Just…

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thermochemistry : Hess Law

Probably nowhere else does the contrast between the largely quantitative nature of Gen Chem with (relatively) qualitative nature of Org Chem become more apparent than with the topic of thermodynamics. Whereas you probably spent a lot of time in Gen chem figuring out heats of formation, free energy differences, and electrochemical potentials, these types of…

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Acids and Bases

Oxygius, having six sheep to take care of, found he could make a bargain with two of the Hydrus shepherd boys, whom each brought a sheep of their own. In so doing, Oxygius fulfilled his commitments under the law of Emperor Octavius, and each of the Hydrus shared the tending of a pair of sheep…

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Lewis Structures

Once upon a time, in a land far, far away, there were six shepherds.  They were poor people, but proud and self-reliant, and they each had a small flock of sheep. Borus had five, Carbus six,, Nitrus seven,  Oxagus eight, Florus nine, and Neus had ten. One day the corrupt authorities came to the fields…

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Understanding Periodic Trends

Let’s revisit a few terms that you learned back in Gen chem: ionization energy – the amount of energy required to remove an electron from an atom electronegativity – a measure of the ability of an atom to attract electrons toward itself electron affinity – the energy change when an electron is added to the…

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Chemical Bonding

The opposite charges are going to attract and the like charges are going to repel. We’re talking about interactions BETWEEN the two atoms here, so we’re putting aside the Nucleus A/Electron A and Nucleus B/Electron B interactions. for a moment. With the Coulomb equation in mind,  there’s at least 4 things we need to think about:…

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