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8 Factors That Cause Disease In Fish That Make You Lose!

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Pests and diseases of fish is one of the very serious problems in fish farming. With the development of cultivation technology, the area is getting narrower, the stocking density is getting higher, and artificial feeding is increasing.

There are many factors that determine a fish becoming ill. The main factors are Host (pet organism / host), Pathogen (microbes, parasites) and Environment (environment related to physical, chemical or behavioral behavior such as stress). So it can be said that disease is an expression of the complex of interactions between host-pathogen-environment. The above is described by Snieszko in Zonneveld (1994) through 3 circles that overlap each other to show interactions between hosts, potential pathogens and the environment.

Therefore, it is necessary to prevent diseases in fish to minimize the mortality rate in fish, here we have summarized some of the Factors Causing Disease in Fish.

Diseases of the Fish

Fish disease can be defined as anything that can cause disruption of a function or structure of a body tool or part of a body tool, either directly or indirectly. In principle, diseases that attack fish do not just come out of thin air, but rather go through a process of relationship between three factors, namely environmental conditions (conditions in the water), the condition of the host (fish), and the presence of pathogenic remains (disease remains). Thus the onset of the disease attack is the result of incompatible interactions between the environment, fish, and disease bodies/ organisms. This incompatible interaction causes stress in fish, so that the self-defense mechanisms they have become weak and eventually easily attacked by disease.

Humans play an important role in efforts to prevent disease attacks on farmed fish, both in ponds, cages, ponds, and in other cultivation containers, namely by maintaining the harmony of interactions between the three components above. This means that losses suffered due to disease attacks can actually be avoided if farmers have adequate knowledge about how to maintain harmony between the three components that cause the disease.

The causes of disease in fish or events that trigger the occurrence of disease include the following:

1. Stress

All changes in the environment are considered to be the cause of stress for fish and for that it is necessary to adapt from fish. Several stress factors, such as water temperature and salinity, can cause an increase in fish metabolism, if fish are transferred from fresh water whose salinity is 0 ppt to ponds or the sea whose salinity is above 20 ppt not gradually, the fish will have difficulty adapting. Other factors, such as transportation, can cause pressure on the immune system and produce various causes of increased disease and death in fish.

Therefore sometimes the fish are given sedatives before being transported. There is also stress caused in terms of food or feed given, as happens with catfish, if young fish (0.5-5.0 grams) are given food more than 5% of the body weight is fresh per day, the back intestine or the middle part of the rupture gives rise to diseases of the peritoneum. Then inflammation of the abdominal wall arises that causes wounds that come from within.

To reduce stress at the time of stocking fry should be careful, freshly caught or freshly brought fish should not be directly mixed with old ones, but it is necessary to adapt the temperature in advance.

2. Malnutrition

Malnourished fish are also the source and cause of the disease. Feed with low protein content will reduce the growth rate, the reproductive process is less than perfect, and can cause fish to become susceptible to disease. Lack of fat or fatty acids will lead to stunted growth of fish, difficulty of reproduction, and abnormal skin color. Lack of carbohydrates and minerals is rare, except for iodine which can cause goiter. Vitamin deficiencies can result in decreased growth, dim fish eyes, anemia, pale skin, and poor spinal growth.

Unbalanced feed or excessive components can also cause problems, such as excess protein and fat can cause fat accumulation in the liver and kidneys (lipoid liver degeneration) so that fish become fat, appetite decreases, and increases around the stomach. And excess carbohydrates can also cause fat accumulation in the liver and other internal organs, the abdominal cavity dilates, the gills turn pale, the eggs are retained, and the quality decreases.

Prevention is carried out by providing fish with food that contains complete nutrition, is not overnourished, feeding is sufficient, timely, and food does not contain toxic ingredients.

3. Overfeeding

In addition to malnutrition as a barrier to the ease of fish getting sick, feeding also results in the same thing. There are two dangerous events when fish are given excessive feed, namely fish experiencing excessive satiation so that the fish intestines break easily and decrease water quality.

Excessive feed that is not eaten by fish will be backlogged based on ponds and ponds. Thus it will accelerate the decline in water quality, because feed is a source of organic changes that undergo decomposition (especially protein) will become ammonia. While an excessive concentration of ammonia can cause the onset of poisoning in fish.

4. Poisoning

The poisonings that are known to be those caused by NO2– and NH3 ions. But this happens only under certain environmental conditions, for example, the hoarding of sludge and the remains of abundantly embroidered feed or ponds. Another health disorder that is highly dependent on the physical state is gas bubble trauma or called GBT (Gas Bubble Trauma). The disease occurs because the water is oversaturated with gases, especially nitrogen.

But gas bubble trauma or GBT can also occur due to oversaturation of oxygen. Oversaturation of blood with gas can occur for example due to the use of heated water, water provided through excessive pressure, and water jetting using damaged and perforated pumps. In the body of the fish, with the saturation of blood as mentioned above, there will be an air bubble with a certain level and this will clog the blood capillaries. The rupture of these capillaries produces hemorrhagic.

In addition to the aforementioned poisoning, the dullness can also come from the feed. For example, from the raw materials used, the activity of microorganisms that pollute the feed and the decrease / destruction of feed components during storage. Fat rancidity can impair the liver function of fish. Mycotoxin dai Aspergilus flavus can cause liver tumors. Some other compounds that are not toxic but can reduce feed quality include the enzyme thiaminase which can damage thiamin (vitamin B1), trypsin inhibitors that can inhibit the activity of the trypsin enzyme.

Poisoning can also come from waste, both household waste such as ditergen, agricultural waste such as pestida and industrial waste such as Cu, Cd, and Hg as well as various other pollution materials. All of this at high concentrations can harm fish and fish consumers.

5. Bruises and cuts

Fish have bruises and injuries due to biting each other or poor handling. Ulcus syndrome in grouper identified as caused by vibrio sp bacteria. (vibriosis) originates from bruises and wounds in fish (Anonim, 1994).

During transportation it is necessary to pay attention to the fact that the environmental conditions in the transport medium remain good, so that the fish do not experience disturbances. To maintain the good condition of the transport medium, it is necessary to pay attention to the time of transportation, the number of fish transported, and the distance traveled. In the transport container, the size of the fish must be uniform, especially fish that have cannibalistic properties (prey on each other) such as grouper, snapper, kuwe, cork, and other carnivorous fish. It is necessary to pay attention to this so that there is no mutual attack between the fish that can cause bruises and injuries to the fish. Because fish that are bruised and injured are only quickly stressed, but bruised and wounded parts of the body are a potential medium for disease attack.

6. Defects

Defective fish will have difficulty obtaining food, either because of their slow movement or because of their disability so that they experience stunting. And therefore, it is difficult to compete mainly in obtaining food. Nevertheless, deformed fish is not only a congenital (non-infectious) disease, but also due to improper treatment of the breeder. For example, fish that have the habit of eating food at the bottom of the waters, by the breeder are given floating food. Such treatment will cause the fish to suffer from cross-eye. So are fish that experience bone bending. It is possible that fish eggs are hatched with the disease first before hatching. Therefore, the builder must also be able to ensure that the water medium used and the eggs to be hatched are in optimal conditions.

7. Water quality

If the water quality is not in optimum conditions for the purposes of fish life, for example, the level of organic matter at the bottom of a pond or pond is high. Water quality also has the potential to cause cyto-pathology and histo-pathology changes in fish. High concentration of ammonia can cause histological changes in gill tissues even though they are slow but continuous.

Maintaining optimum water quality for the needs of farmed fish means maintaining fish health and preventing disease attacks. Optimum water quality can be maintained from the activities of choosing the ideal location, using and making suitable cultivation containers, and carrying out proper management of fish farming businesses, such as choosing quality seeds, providing sufficient and quality and timely feed, water changes, soil management, and so on.

8. Pest

Diseases can also be caused by pests that intentionally or unintentionally get into the maintenance container. Pests in addition to disturbing maintenance fish in the form of preying, rivaling, and damaging cultivation containers, can also carry disease organisms such as viruses, perasites, bacteria or fungi. Maintenance fish injured as a result of being attacked by predators will be easily stressed, and the bruised or injured part is a potential medium for the occurrence of an attack of infectious diseases.

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