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Hello chemistry, chemistry greetings! In this post Kang Ayub will discuss the uniqueness of the Carbon Atom, you already know what the uniqueness of this carbon atom is? Let’s see the material!

Carbon atoms are said to be unique because they can be given each other to form chains of carbon atoms. these chains of carbon atoms may also have branches which also consist of chains of carbon atoms. two ends of one chain can be connected to form a circular chain.

in addition, carbon atoms can also bind to other elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, halogens and some metal atoms. therefore, the number of carbon compounds becomes very large no less than 9 million carbon compounds that have been known.

The simplest member of this group is methane (CH4) which consists of just one carbon atom, however, many carbon compounds are very complex, for example DNA which consists of millions of atoms. DNA contains oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus and several other elements of carbon and hydrogen.

1. Carbon compounds (organic compounds)

The largest part of the compounds known to experts are carbon compounds. such compounds are the main components in all living things. some of them are carbohydrates, proteins, fats, urea, and various vitamins. until the 19th century none of these compounds could be made in the laboratory.

Therefore, this group of compounds is named organic compounds. there was even a notion, namely vitalism, which said that the formation of organic compounds requires life force. other compounds that do not have to come from living things such as table salt, sand, alabaster and water, are called inorganic compounds. Some carbon compounds, such as CO and CO2, as well as carbonate carbonate and cyanide, based on their properties, are classified into inorganic compounds.

A new development occurred in 1823 when Frederich Wohler, a German chemist, succeeded in making organic compounds in the laboratory, Wohler succeeded in making urea, an organic compound found in mammalian urine, from ammonium cyanate through heating.

Since Wohler’s discovery, millions of organic compounds have been synthesized.

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Even many synthetic carbon compounds are not found in living things, but because of the similarity of their properties are classified into organic compounds. although it has been successfully made in the laboratory, the classification of chemical compounds on organic compounds and inorganic compounds is still used. but this classification is mainly based on the similarity of properties, even on the source or origin.

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2. Carbon has 4 valence electrons

In the periodic system of elements, carbon (z = 6) is located in period 2 of group IV A. This position both period and group gives privileges to the nature of carbon.

In accordance with the group number. carbon has 4 valence electrons. therefore, to achieve the octet configuration, carbon can form as many covalent bonds unless it exceeds the octet configuration. nitrogen (group VA) for example, can only form 3 covalent bonds. k

Carbon forms covalent bonds with various non-metallic elements, especially with hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), and the halogen group (F, Cl, Br, I) and even with some metallic elements such as magnesium.

3. Carbon atoms are relatively small

In accordance with the period number, the carbon atom has only 2 atomic shells so that the atomic finger is relatively small, this causes the following two things:

  • Covalent bonds formed carbon relatively strong
  • Carbon can form double bonds and double bonds

The strength of the covalent bond depends on the radius of the bonded atoms, the greater the atomic finger the weaker the bond formed. meanwhile rangakap bond only ibentuk by relatively small atoms, namely the second period and some elements of the third period. fourth period elements do not form double bonds.

4. Chain of carbon atoms

Carbon with 4 valence electrons can form bonds between carbons in the form of single bonds, double bonds and triple bonds. besides that it can also form circular (cyclic) chains. that is why the number of carbon compounds becomes very large. consider the example below:

Atom carbon

Comparison of properties of organic compounds and inorganic compounds

1. Stability to heating

Organic compounds are less stabill to heating. generally organic compounds have decomposed at 700 C. this happens because organic compounds have covalent bonds that are relatively weaker than the ionic bonds that are often found in inorganic compounds.

2. Liquid point and boiling point

Organic compounds generally have a relatively low liquid point and boiling point. many of them are gases or liquids at room temperature. on the other hand, inorganic compounds, especially those that are ionic compounds, have a relatively high liquid point and boiling point.

3. Solubility

Organic compounds are more soluble in nonpolar solvents (such as chlorophyll) than in polar solvents (such as water). Conversely, inorganic compounds are more soluble in polar solvents.

4. Reactivity

Reaction reactions of organic compounds generally take place more slowly than the reactions of inorganic compounds, except combustion reactions. many of the organic compounds are flammable, but less reactive to other reagents. plastic for example, does not react with acids and bases even aquaregia.

Comparison of the properties of organic compounds (benzene) with inorganic compounds (sodium chloride)

NatureBenzeneSodium chloride
Chemical formula Solubility in water Solubility in gasoline Flammability Melting point Boiling point Density Bond typeC6H6 Insoluble Soluble Can 5.5 C 80 C 0.88 g cm-3 CovalentNaCl Soluble Insoluble Insoluble 801 C 1413 C 2.7 g cm-3 Ionic

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