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You often hear the word “Mental Illness“, but you don’t know what it means. You know that mental illness is part of “Mental Health”. In this article we will discuss what is Mental Illness that is often discussed by the public.

Mental illness refers to a group of disorders of brain function that affect a person’s thinking, emotions or behavior. The disorder can interfere with how the person relates to others and manages daily activities such as school or work.

This mental health disorder is not the same as a bad mood or mood swing. It is a diagnosable brain disorder. Mental illnesses are also called mental health conditions or disorders.

According to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), as many as one in five adults experience mental illness during any given year. Approximately 52.9 million people were living with severe mental illness in 2020. Of the 14.2 million adults with severe mental illness, 65% (9.1 million) received mental health care during the past year.

Fewer young adults aged 18 to 25 with a serious mental illness received mental health care (58%) than adults aged 26 to 49 (63%) and those aged 50 and older (73%).

The lifetime proportion of any mental disorder in American adolescents aged 13 to 18 is almost 50% and 22% have severe disorders. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in 2019, more than 14% of children between the ages of 5 and 14 received mental health care during the past 12 months. About 10% received therapy or counseling and more than 8% were prescribed medication.

Types of Mental Illness

There are many types of mental health disorders. The following are among the more common ones:

  • Anxiety disorders, such as generalized anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, phobias and social anxiety, which are characterized by excessive worry or fear
  • Mood disorders such as depression, including depressive disorder and seasonal affective disorder, where people are depressed to the point where their mood affects daily activities.
  • Bipolar disorder is characterized by low moods and depression mixed with high-energy moods.
  • Alcohol and substance abuse disorders, which are excessive use or addiction to prescription drugs or illegal drugs Eating disorders, such as anorexia, bulimia, or binge eating disorder
  • Concentration disorders, which can occur in children, adolescents and adults.
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by unwanted and persistent urges to repeat thoughts, behaviors, or routines. Obsessions may include fears of safety or cleanliness, and compulsions may involve tidiness or order, collection of seemingly useless items, or rituals.

Other mental illnesses include schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, a chronic condition where people hallucinate or exhibit other symptoms of schizophrenia alongside depression or mania. Dissociative disorders can occur after trauma, and people who experience them run away from reality or disconnect from their thoughts.

Mental Illness Causes and Symptoms

There is no definitive cause of mental illness. Mental health conditions are most likely caused by a combination of interacting factors, including genetic factors (inherited from parents), physical factors, psychological factors, and environmental factors (such as social relationships or parenting).

For example, a person may inherit a susceptibility to depression and then experience life stressors such as poverty, illness, or peer pressure that combined with genetic factors lead to depression.


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Tanda dan gejala gangguan jiwa bervariasi berdasarkan jenis gangguan, usia, jenis kelamin, dan faktor lainnya. Namun, tanda-tanda peringatan ini dan lainnya dapat menunjukkan bahwa seseorang mungkin memerlukan bantuan untuk kondisi kesehatan mental:

Mental Health, Mental Illness. Penyakit Mental
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  • Frequent anger or excessive worry
  • Loss of interest in activities the person once enjoyed
  • Difficulty sleeping or eating
  • Isolation from social interaction
  • Obsessive exercise or dieting
  • Low energy, or inability to concentrate on daily tasks
  • High energy, with impulsiveness or multitasking, but difficulty maintaining focus
  • Alcohol, drug, or tobacco abuse
  • Destroying things or hurting people

How to Reduce Mental Illness

Mental illness is treatable, and the sooner a person receives treatment, the better the chances of success. Most treatment starts with therapy, a type of counseling that helps people identify the triggers of the problem and helps them cope with the symptoms (sadness, anger, stress, grief, other painful feelings). Some psychiatrists specialize in treating children and adolescents. Counselors and other mental health professionals can also provide supportive care for mental illness.

Some therapies involve a person’s partner, parents, siblings, or the whole family. Other options, including cognitive behavioral therapy, involve guided individual conversations with a psychotherapist. It can help people learn to discover and manage harmful thoughts or emotions and change patterns to create more positive ways of dealing with emotions and solving problems.

If a person has severe emotional or substance abuse problems or is in a psychological crisis that endangers the person’s health, a mental health professional may recommend a residential treatment program. In this program, people temporarily live in a specialized facility to receive comprehensive treatment.

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You often hear the word "Mental Illness", but you don't know what it means. You know that mental illness is part of "Mental Health". In this article we will discuss what is Mental Illness that is often discussed by the public. Mental illness refers to...What is Mental Illness? Here are 9 causes and how to treat them